A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N
O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
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Activity: An action (event or sequence of events) to be carried out.
Administration: Activities necessary for the proper and efficient performance of the eligible agency or eligible recipient’s duties, including supervision, but not including curriculum development activities, personnel development, or research activities.
Administrative Cost: Noninstructional expenses, including planning, supervision, administration (including clerical costs and rental of administrative space), evaluation, personnel development, and coordination that are necessary and reasonable. The cost for instructional coordinators is an instructional expense.
Adult: Under TEC 29.252, an individual who is over the age of compulsory school attendance as prescribed by TEC 25.085
In CTE programs, a person 16 years of age or older who is enrolled in career and technology education that does not lead to a high school diploma or a postsecondary associate degree. This definition includes those who are pursuing a certificate or a license but not an associate degree, even though they may be receiving credit concurrently toward an associate degree.
Adult Basic Education (ABE): Instruction designed for an adult who meets one of the following:
- has minimal or no proficiency in reading, writing, and computation
- is not proficient in meeting the educational requirements of adult life in the United States
- cannot read or write the English language proficiently enough to allow employment commensurate with the adult’s real ability.
Adult Education: Services or instruction below the postsecondary level for individuals who have attained 16 years of age and who meet one of the following:
- are not enrolled or required to be enrolled in secondary school under State law and lack sufficient mastery of basic educational skills to enable them to function effectively in society
- do not have a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent and have not achieved an equivalent level of education
- are unable to speak, read, or write the English language.
Adult Secondary Education (ASE): Instruction designed for an adult who meets the following:
- is literate and can function in everyday life but is not proficient
- does not have a certificate of graduation or its equivalent from a school providing secondary education.
Adults with Disabilities: Persons who are sixteen years of age or older with any type of physical or mental impairment that substantially limits or restricts one or more major life activities, including walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, learning, and working .
This definition includes adults who are alcohol and drug abusers, mentally handicapped, hearing-impaired, deaf, speech-impaired, visually handicapped, seriously emotionally disturbed, and orthopedically impaired; who suffer from other health impairments; and who have specific learning disabilities.
Adults with the Lowest Levels of Literacy: Adults who function in the beginning levels of performance .
Advisory Committee: A collaborative working group that consists of a broad spectrum of community representatives, including workforce-development representatives, representatives from each adult education and literacy service provider in the consortium, and representatives from other related community agencies (including agencies whose clients need and qualify for adult education and literacy services.)
The advisory committee reviews the activities of and makes recommendations to the adult education fiscal agent in planning, developing, and evaluating the adult education program. The fiscal agent is responsible for convening at least one committee for the program at least twice each year.
Agency: Texas Education Agency
All Aspects of the Industry: For CTE programs, strong experience in and comprehensive understanding of the industry that the individual is preparing to enter, including occupational and employment information.
Amendment: An application change requested by the applicant, composed of revised schedules for program activities or budget categories.
Annual Program Evaluation: A systematic review of each program operated by a district to determine its quality and effectiveness and to provide a basis for improving or discontinuing the program.
For CTE programs specifically, a systematic review of each CTE program operated by a district to determine the quality and effectiveness of the courses and to appraise the extent to which instruction is provided through a coherent sequence of courses that prepare students for gainful employment or further education.
Applicant: The legal entity applying for a grant. If the grant is approved, the applicant is the grantee or contractor.
Applicant Agency: The organization or agency applying for a grant. Eligible applicant agencies include school districts including open enrollment charter schools, nonprofit organizations, universities or colleges, for-profit businesses, ESCs, and other State agencies.
Application: The entire package submitted by the applicant, composed of original schedules, contact information, budget information, program description information, and provisions and assurances.
Application for Amendment: A change being requested by the applicant to the approved application. An amendment must be approved by TEA before expenditures are made, any activities such as purchase orders are issued, funds are encumbered or expended, goods are received, or services are rendered that are affected by the amendment.
Application Schedules: The forms used to complete an application.
Apprenticeship: An education and training program registered with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT) that is conducted or sponsored by an employer, a group of employers, or a joint apprenticeship committee representing both employers and labor, and that contains all terms and conditions of the qualifications, recruitment, selection, employment, and training of apprentices.
Articulation Agreement: A written commitment that is approved annually by the lead administrators of a secondary institution and a postsecondary educational institution to a program that is designed to provide students with a nonduplicative sequence of progressive achievement leading to technical skill proficiency, a credential, a certificate or a degree and is linked through credit transfer agreements between the two institutions.
Articulation Plan: A plan developed cooperatively between a school district and a postsecondary institution. The plan ensures the coordination of secondary and postsecondary (two-year) occupational training to eliminate unnecessary duplication of coursework and to streamline the educational process. An articulation plan is not a tech-prep program.
Asset-Based, Community Capacity-Building Instructional Model: An instructional approach that focuses on the discovery, connection, and mobilization of student assets and connects students with mutually supportive people and groups in the community. Activities include the creation, planning, and implementation of projects that fit the goals and objectives of participants and use the participants’ own interests and abilities.
Authorizing Statute: The Federal or State law that authorizes a specific program to be funded and implemented.
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Baseline: Assessment that is conducted to determine functioning levels when a student enrolls in adult education using the standardized tests required by TEA.
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Career and Technology Education: Organized educational activities that do both of the following:
- offer a sequence of courses that does the following:
- provides individuals with coherent and rigorous content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills needed to prepare for further education and careers in current and emerging professions
- provides technical skill proficiency, an industry-recognized credential, a certificate, or an associate degree
- may include prerequisite courses (other than a remedial course)
- include competency-based applied learning that contributes to the academic knowledge, higher-order reasoning and problem-solving skills, work attitudes, general employability skills, technical skills, and occupation-specific skills, and knowledge of all aspects of an industry, including entrepreneurship, of an individual
Career and Technology Student Organization: An organization for individuals enrolled in a CTE program that engages in CTE activities as an integral part of the instructional program. It may have state and national units that aggregate the work and purposes of instruction in CTE at the local level.
Career Cluster: Broad areas of study encompassing many closely related occupations, based upon the nature of the work or the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required of the related occupations. These areas of study are flexible and overlapping in nature, allowing students to change as new knowledge and experiences are acquired. Each career cluster provides a coherent sequence of courses that is an articulated, cross-discipline mixture of academic and career and technical courses providing both the academic and occupational competencies necessary for a variety of occupations in a particular area while providing students experiences in all aspects of the industry.
Career Concentration: Broad areas of study, encompassing many closely related occupations, based upon the nature of the work or the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required of the related occupations. These areas of study are flexible and overlapping in nature, allowing students to change as new knowledge and experiences are acquired. Each career concentration provides a coherent sequence of courses that is an articulated, cross-discipline mixture of academic and career or technology courses providing both the academic and occupational competencies necessary for a variety of occupations in a particular pathway while providing students experiences in all aspects of the industry.
Career concentrations facilitate the integration of academic and occupational knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for entry into postsecondary training or employment in the following: agricultural science and technology careers; art, communication, and media technology careers; business and marketing careers; health science technology careers; human development, management, and services careers; industrial and engineering technology careers; and personal and protective services careers.
Career Guidance and Academic Counseling: The provision of access for students (and parents, as appropriate) to information regarding career awareness and planning with respect to an individual’s occupational and academic future. It must involve guidance and counseling with respect to career options, financial aid, and postsecondary options, including baccalaureate degree programs.
Career Guidance, Career Counseling, and Placement: Those programs that (1) pertain to the body of subject matter and related techniques and methods organized for the development of career awareness, career orientation, career planning, career decision making, placement skills, and knowledge and understanding of local, state, and national occupational, educational, and labor market needs, trends, and opportunities and (2) assist individuals in making and implementing informed educational and career choices.
Career Information Center: A center that provides various career and technology education counseling services and activities. It provides a variety of career and occupational information for use by students and teachers such as printed materials usually organized around clusters of occupations, careers, or interests; films, filmstrips, and videos; microfiche; computerized information retrieval systems; postsecondary school catalogs; career magazines or tabloids; apprenticeship directories; job hunter’s guides; state, local, and national employment information and outlook; and financial aid information. In addition, a career center provides a setting for individual or group activities in job survival skills, job seeking skills, and full-time or part-time employment.
Charter School: See section 5210 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act (20 U.S.C. 8066).
Child Care: Costs of child care for children of students while they attend class.
Clerical Staff: A staff person who performs a variety of administrative and technical activities in a supportive capacity for the appropriate program personnel.
Clinical Rotation: A health science cluster work-based learning educational and training environment that requires a written cooperative arrangement with business and industry where a student is provided the opportunity with or without pay to understand the functions and procedures practiced within the health professions. Students should cycle through all aspects of the health care industry to acquire full appreciation of all elements in the health professions environment.
Coherent Sequence of Courses: An educational plan of rigorous and challenging academic courses and relevant CTE courses appropriate for a given career program of study. This plan may include work-based learning experiences leading to both academic and technical knowledge and skills needed to prepare for further education and careers in current or emerging professions.
Note: Under the Perkins State Plan, a CTE concentrator must demonstrate academic proficiency based on the Recommended High School Program and technical skill proficiency equivalent to three credits in a coherent sequence of two or more CTE courses.
Community-Based Organization (CBO): A private nonprofit organization that is representative of a community or significant segments of a community and that provides education, vocational education or rehabilitation, job training, or internship services and programs. It includes neighborhood groups and organizations, community action agencies, community development corporations, union-related organizations, employers’ related organizations, tribal governments, and organizations serving Native Alaskans and Indians.
Community College: An IHE, as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, which provides not less than a two-year program that is acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor's degree or a tribally controlled college or university.
Component: A major aspect, part, or piece (element) of a grant project contributing to the whole. An instructional grant project may have the following components: instruction, curriculum, professional development, parent involvement, and assessment or evaluation.
Computer Package: Expenditures for hardware equipment such as a monitor, keyboard, disk drive, printer, and other computer peripherals to complete a package.
Consortium/ Cooperative: A partnership of educational and other agencies that agree to collaborate for the provision of services. Examples include private, nonprofit literacy councils; community-based organizations; school districts; and colleges who provide services directly to the targeted populations. Consortiums or Cooperatives must designate a single fiscal agent that is responsible for submitting an application on behalf of all the consortium or cooperative members. The fiscal agent of the consortium submits the written, signed agreements with each of the consortium partners to the TEA in the application. These agreements delineate specific responsibilities to be delivered to the recipients of the grant program. These written agreements may include the following:
• specific information about the use of funds to be flowed to or subcontracted to a participating member
• specific information about services paid for by the funds to be provided by the consortium to the participating partner.
Consultant: An independent contractor who is not an employee and who offers services to the public.
Consultant Travel: Expenditures for consultant travel and per diem. Related expenses cannot exceed state rates.
Contextualized Instruction: Use of parenting skills, life skills, job training, or civic participation to teach literacy and higher-order thinking skills in the context in which they will be used. There is a clear connection between the goals of the learner and the instructional strategies. Contextualized learning focuses, for example, on reading to learn rather than just learning to read and views literacy as a tool that requires a great deal of hands-on learning.
Contract: The entire document, whatever its name or schedule, that contains the Provisions and Assurances, plus any other attachments and schedules. The approved application, together with the NOGA, constitutes a contractual agreement between the applicant or grantee and TEA.
Contract Project: The purpose intended to be achieved through the contract.
Contractor: The party or parties to the contract other than TEA. In the case of a grant, the grantee is the contractor.
Cooperative Education: A method of instruction of education for individuals who, through written cooperative arrangements between a school and employers, receive instruction, including required academic courses and related CTE instruction, by alternation of study in school with a job in any occupational field. This alternation shall be planned and supervised by the school and employer so that each contributes to the education and employability of the individual. It may include an arrangement in which work periods and school attendance may be on alternate half days, full days, weeks, or other periods of time in fulfilling the cooperative program. Cooperative Education is not a work-study program. See Work-Study Program.
Cooperative Training Plan: A written cooperative agreement between the school and the training sponsor employer for each student enrolled in cooperative training. The training plan ensures that each student receives both on-the-job training and the equivalent of one period daily of related instruction covering the required essential knowledge and skills for the specific occupation identified in the training plan. Such related instruction must be provided each week for the entire school year. In cases where no approved essential knowledge and skills are available, the appropriate training elements must be identified cooperatively by the school and the employer (training sponsor).
Corrections Education: Programs for adults who are inmates in a prison, jail reformatory, work farm, detention center, halfway house, community-based rehabilitation center, or other similar Federal, state, or local institution designed for the confinement or rehabilitation of criminal offenders. (See the entry for Section 225.)
Cost Study: A comparison made by a school district to determine the most cost-effective method for delivering a career and technology education program, service, or activity.
Counselor: A staff person who provides guidance and counseling services to students.
CTE: Career and Technology Education
Curriculum Materials: Instructional and related or supportive materials, including materials using advanced learning technology in any occupational field and appropriate counseling and guidance materials, which are designed to strengthen general foundations, to prepare individuals for entry-level employment, and to upgrade occupational competencies of those individuals previously or presently employed in any occupational field.
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Data Entry Clerk: A staff person who provides standard program functions for data collection and entry into the state management system.
Direct Noninstructional Student Services: For CTE purposes, those services, excluding guidance and counseling, that are not instructional in nature, such as childcare, transportation, and work-study for students enrolled in CTE programs.
Director: An administrative staff person who plans and oversees the general execution of projects at the local level for a fiscal agent and may be paid in full or part with adult education funds. The cost for a director is an administrative expense.
Discretionary Competitive: A grant program funded with discretionary funds. Such a program requires a competitive review, scoring, and selection process.
Discretionary Continuation: A grant program funded with discretionary funds. Such a program requires a competitive selection process in any year that is open to new applicants. These grant programs are currently offered only to existing grant recipients in good standing with grant requirements and performance. Continuation applications are not reviewed or scored.
Discretionary Funds: Funds over which the Commissioner or TEA has discretion in how and to whom grant funds are awarded.
Discretionary Non-Competitive: A grant program funded with discretionary funds. Such a program does not require a competitive selection process. Either projects to be funded are approved by the Commissioner for funding on an individual basis or a group of projects may be funded to grantees meeting certain requirements.
Displaced Homemaker: An individual who meets both of the following:
- has worked primarily without remuneration to care for a home and family and for that reason has diminished marketable skills, has been dependent on the income of another family member but is no longer supported by that income, or is a parent whose youngest dependent child will become ineligible to receive assistance under part A of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) not later than two years after the date on which the parent applies for assistance under this title
- is unemployed or underemployed and is experiencing difficulty in obtaining or upgrading employment.
Distance Learning: Learning in which the learner and instructor are separated in place or time or learners are separated from learning resources. Interactions between the learner and instructor, among learners, or between learners and resources are conducted through one or more media.
DCC: Document Control Center of TEA
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Economically Disadvantaged: A family or individual whom the State Board of Education identifies as low income on the basis of uniform methods that are described in the state plan. A local education agency must use one or more of the following standards as an indicator of low income:
- annual income at or below the official poverty line established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget
- eligibility for free or reduced-price school lunch
- eligibility for Aid to Families with Dependent Children or other public assistance programs
receipt of a Pell Grant or comparable state program of need-based financial assistance
eligibility for participation in programs assisted under Title II of the Job Training Partnership Act
eligibility for benefits under the Food Stamp Act of 1977
eligibility for services under Chapter I of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
Education Service Center (ESC): Regional Education Service Center. There are 20 regional ESCs in the State of Texas.
Educational Aide: A paraprofessional who performs routine classroom tasks under the general supervision of a certified teacher or teaching team. Aides must meet the qualifications of the SBOE rules for adult education.
Educationally Disadvantaged: For CTE programs, an individual who scores at or below the 25th percentile on a standardized achievement or aptitude test or who fails to attain minimal general competencies may be considered “educationally disadvantaged.” The definition does not include individuals with learning disabilities. At the secondary level, failure to attain “minimal general competencies” is operationally defined as one of the following:
- having failed to be promoted one or more times in grades one through six and continuing to be unable to master the essential knowledge and skills in the seventh grade or higher
- being two or more years below grade level in reading or mathematics
- having failed at least two courses in one or more semesters and not expected to graduate within four years of ninth grade entrance
- having failed one or more of the reading, writing, or mathematics sections of the most recent Texas Assessment of Skills and Knowledge test, beginning with the seventh grade.
Educationally Disadvantaged Adult: For adult education programs, an adult who meets one of the following:
- demonstrates basic skills equivalent to or below that of students at the fifth grade level
- has been placed in the lowest or beginning level of an adult education program when that program does not use grade-level equivalencies as a measure of students' basic skills.
EL-Civics: English Literacy-Civics Education, as defined in the November 17th, 1999, Federal Register: “an educational program that emphasizes contextualized instruction on the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, naturalization procedures, civic participation, and U.S. history and government to help students acquire the skills and knowledge to become active and informed parents, workers, and community members.
Eligible Applicant/Entity:The organization or legal entity that is qualified to apply for a grant. The eligible applicant is always identified in the program guidelines.
Eligible Institution: For Perkins grants, one of the following:
- a public or nonprofit IHE that offers CTE courses that lead to technical skill proficiency, an industry-recognized credential, a certificate, or a degree
an LEA providing education at the postsecondary level
an area CTE school providing education at the postsecondary level
a postsecondary educational institution controlled by the Bureau of Indian Affairs or operated by or on behalf of any Indian tribe that is eligible to contract with the Secretary of the Interior for the administration of programs under the Indian Self-Determination Act or the Act of April 16, 1934 (48 Stat. 596; 25 U.S.C. 452 et seq.)
a consortium of two or more of the entities described above.
Eligible Recipient: For Perkins programs, one of the following:
an LEA (including a public charter school that operates as an LEA), area CTE school, ESC, or consortium, eligible to receive assistance under section 131
an eligible institution or consortium of eligible institutions eligible to receive assistance under section 132.
Emergent Curriculum: Curriculum from which learners identify their own or their community’s problems and issues and seek their own solutions. Teachers become facilitators of class discussions and activities and learn along with the class.
English as a Second Language (ESL): Instruction designed for adults of limited English proficiency. ESL consists of integrated listening, speaking, reading, and writing instruction.
Beginning ESL Literacy: Individuals cannot speak or understand English or understand only isolated words or phrases. Individuals haveminimal or no reading or writing skills in any language but may be able to read and write their own names or simple isolated words. These individuals may be able to write letters or numbers and copy simple words, or there may be no or incomplete recognition of the alphabet; they may have difficulty using a writing instrument. There is little or no comprehension of how print corresponds to spoken language. Individuals function minimally or not at all in English; can communicate only through gestures or a few isolated words such as name and other personal information; may recognize only common signs or symbols (stop sign, product logos); or can handle only very routine entry-level jobs that do not require oral or written communication in English. They have no knowledge or use of computers or technology.
Beginning ESL: Individuals can understand frequently used words in context and very simple phrases spoken slowly and with some repetition; there is little communicative output and only in the most routine situations; they have little or no control over basic grammar; survival needs can be communicated simply; and there is some understanding of simple questions. Individuals can read and print numbers and letters but have a limited understanding of connected prose and may need to frequently re-read; can write a limited number of basic sight words and familiar words and phrases; and may also be able to write simple sentences or phrases, including very simple messages. Narrative writing is disorganized and unclear with inconsistent use of simple punctuation (periods, commas, question marks) or contains frequent errors in spelling.
Individuals function with difficulty in situations related to immediate needs and in limited social situations; have some simple oral communication abilities using simple learned and repeated phrases; may need frequent repetition; can provide personal information on simple forms; can recognize common forms of print found in the home and environment such as labels and product names; and can handle routine entry-level jobs that require only the most basic written or oral English communication and in which job tasks can be demonstrated. There is a minimal knowledge or experience using computer or technology.
Low Intermediate ESL: Individuals can understand simple learned phrases and limited new phrases containing familiar vocabulary spoken slowly with frequent repetition; can ask and respond to questions using such phrases; can express basic survival needs and participate in some routine social conversations, although with some difficulty; and have some control of basic grammar. Individuals can read simple material on familiar subjects and comprehend simple and compound sentences in single or linked paragraphs containing a familiar vocabulary; and can write simple notes and messages on familiar situations but that lack clarity and focus. Sentence structure lacks variety, but shows some control of basic grammar (present and past tense) and consistent use of punctuation (periods, capitalization).
Individuals can interpret simple directions and schedules, signs, and maps; can fill out simple forms but need support on some documents that are not simplified; and can handle routine entry-level jobs that involve some written or oral English communication but in which job tasks can be demonstrated. Individuals can use simple computer programs and can perform a sequence of routine tasks given directions using technology (fax machine, computer).
High Intermediate ESL: Individuals can understand learned phrases and short new phrases containing familiar vocabulary spoken slowly and with some repetition; can communicate basic survival needs with some help; can participate in conversation in limited social situations and use new phrases with hesitation; and rely on description and concrete terms. There is inconsistent control of more complex grammar.
Individuals can read text on familiar subjects that have a simple and clear underlying structure (clear main idea, chronological order); can use context to determine meaning; can interpret actions required in specific written directions; can write simple paragraphs with main idea and supporting detail on familiar topics (daily activities, personal issues) by recombining learned vocabulary and structures; and can self- and peer edit for spelling and punctuation errors.
Individuals can meet basic survival and social needs; can follow some simple oral and written instruction and have some ability to communicate on the telephone on familiar subjects; can write messages and notes related to basic needs; can complete basic medical forms and job applications; and can handle jobs that involve basic oral instructions and written communication in tasks that can be clarified orally. Individuals can work with or learn basic computer software such as word processing and can follow simple instructions for using technology.
Low Advanced ESL: Individuals can converse on many everyday subjects and some subjects with unfamiliar vocabulary but may need repetition, rewording or slower speech; can speak creatively, but with hesitation; can clarify general meaning by rewording and have control of basic grammar; understand descriptive and spoken narrative; and can comprehend abstract concepts in familiar contexts.
Individuals are able to read simple descriptions and narratives on familiar subjects or from which new vocabulary can be determined by context and can make some minimal inferences about familiar texts and compare and contrast information from such texts, but not consistently. Individuals can write simple narrative descriptions and short essays on familiar topics, such as customs in their native country, and consistently use basic punctuation but make grammatical errors with complex structures.
Individuals can function independently to meet most survival needs and can communicate on the telephone on familiar topics; can interpret simple charts and graphics; and can handle jobs that require simple oral and written instructions, multi-step diagrams, and limited public interaction. Individuals can use all basic software applications, understand the impact of technology, and can select the correct technology in a new situation.
High Advanced ESL: Individuals can understand and participate effectively in face-to-face conversations on everyday subjects spoken at normal speed; can converse and understand independently in survival,
work, and social situations; can expand on basic ideas in conversation but with some hesitation; and can clarify general meaning and control basic grammar, although still lack total control over complex structures.
Individuals can read authentic materials on everyday subjects and can handle most reading related to life roles; can consistently and fully interpret descriptive narratives on familiar topics and gain meaning from unfamiliar topics; and use increased control of language and meaning-making strategies to gain meaning of unfamiliar texts. Individuals can write multi-paragraph essays with a clear introduction and development of ideas; their writing contains well formed sentences, appropriate mechanics and spelling, and few grammatical errors.
Individuals have a general ability to use English effectively to meet most routine social and work situations; can interpret routine charts, graphs and tables, and complete forms; have a high ability to communicate on the telephone and understand radio and television; and can meet work demands that require reading and writing and interaction with the public. Individuals can use common software and learn new applications; can define the purpose of software and select new applications appropriately; and can instruct others in use of software and technology.
Equipment: Those movable items used for school operation that are of a nonexpendable and mechanical nature, have a useful life of more than one year, and cost $5,000 or more; and personal property that has a useful life of more than one year, is controllable, and is placed on an inventory.
ESC: Regional Education Service Center. There are 20 regional ESCs in the state of Texas.
Experiential Learning: An education approach that connects literacy to the lives of learners and reflects their experiences as community members, parents, and participants in the workforce. This approach shows how literacy can help adults understand and deal with social issues through conducting community research projects, collecting and analyzing information, and interpreting findings in ways that connect classroom-based learning with personal knowledge and community experience.
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Financial Agreement: A written, signed, and dated agreement between a consortium or cooperative fiscal agent and a consortium member that delineates the responsibilities of each in the delivery of grant services. A financial agreement is developed when: 1) a consortium or cooperative member receives funds through a subcontract or 2) when the fiscal agent pays the bills to support the delivery of services through the consortium or cooperative member (The fiscal agent pays for a tutor trainer at a local literacy council.)
Fiscal Agent: The fiscal agent, or fiscal manager, of the consortium/cooperative. The fiscal agent does the following:
applies for the Federal funds to TEA on behalf of the consortium or cooperative
receives the Federal funds from the grantor and manages the funds
is responsible for making and filing composite reports for the consortium or cooperative.
Fiscal Agency Summary: The fiscal agent's in-house budget by class/object code and the funds for other uses (flow-through out) that will be reported.
Formative Evaluation: An evaluation, during implementation, of any defects in the design of or potential sources of failure for a project. Formative evaluation provides information about whether a project was implemented as designed. Formative evaluation also provides project management with timely feedback about the implementation procedures of the project, allowing changes during implementation rather than waiting for an end-of-project analysis. Formative evaluation is planned by management, staff, and the evaluators. Formative evaluation may be conducted by internal evaluators, including advisory committees, or by external evaluators. A plan for formative evaluation should include the following:
a list of formative evaluation questions to be investigated. These questions focus on the areas of interest to project management and participating service providers and include questions about the factors that influence the success of the project. (Identifying the formative evaluation questions is a critical task and should be thoughtfully undertaken.)
a plan and procedures for collecting information and data to answer the questions
a time-frame for collecting the information
a description of the reporting system and the intended audience.
Formula Non-Competitive: A grant program funded with formula entitlement funds based on a funding formula prescribed in statute. Such a program does not require a competitive selection process. If the applicant meets the program requirements and submits a substantially approvable application, it receives funds (similar to discretionary noncompetitive process).
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Goals: The end results toward which effort is directed (what the grantee wants to achieve).
Grant: See Contract.
Grantee: See Contractor.
Grantor: See Agency.
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IHE: Institution of Higher Education.
Improvement of Literacy Levels: Lasting, documented improvement of students’ literacy skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening, and numeracy), regardless of their entry level, that are direct results of comprehensive curricula; integrated instruction; professional, well-prepared, paid, or volunteer staff; and comprehensive counseling delivered through effective and appropriate programs
Also see the definition of Literacy in this glossary.
Individual with a Disability: An individual with any disability (as defined in section 3 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12102). “Individuals with disabilities” means more than one individual with a disability.
Individual with Limited English Proficiency: A secondary school student, an adult, or an out-of-school youth who has limited ability in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language; whose native language is a language other than English; or who lives in a family or community environment in which a language other than English is the dominant language
Instructional Aide: See Educational Aide.
Instructional Coordinator : An adult education supervisor who works directly with teachers—a coordinator providing instructional leadership. An instructional coordinator’s services result in improved student achievement. An instructional coordinator’s duties may include overseeing mandated program requirements, including reporting data, submitting reports, and scheduling and administering assessments.
Instructional Design :The framework upon which an instructional program is developed. An instructional design is based on a program’s instructional philosophy; is appropriate for the achievement of the program’s performance objectives; and integrates instructional strategies, curricula, and assessment strategies.
Internship: A method of work-based learning experience that requires a written agreement with business or industry where a student enrolled in a CTE course works without pay in a technical field to acquire occupational knowledge and experience in all aspects of the business or industry.
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Job Shadowing: A work-based learning experience involving the student physically following a mentor to observe all the processes and practices involved in a job assignment. This learning experience may also include some hands-on training for the student.
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LEA: Local Educational Agency. In Texas, public school districts, open enrollment charter schools, and regional education service centers. See section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 8801).
Limited English Proficiency Individual: A secondary school student, an adult, or an out-of-school young person who has limited ability in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language and whose native language is a language other than English or who lives in a family or community environment in which a language other than English is the dominant language.
Literacy: As defined by the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act, an individual’s ability to read, write, and speak in English, and to compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in society, and in the family.
Local Advisory Council: A council composed of representatives of the general public, business, industry, and labor; one member knowledgeable about students who are in at-risk situations, parents of program participants (including at least one parent of a student who is a member of a special populations group), and at least one representative from each CTE cluster offered in the school district. Each LEA operating an approved CTE program is encouraged to establish an advisory council for CTE. The council should have appropriate gender and ethnicity representation found in the schools, community, or region that the local advisory council serves. The local advisory council should advise the school district on current employment needs and the relevance of CTE programs of study being offered by the local education agency in meeting current and emerging workforce needs. The local advisory council should consult with the school district in developing its annual application for Federal funds. The local advisory council should meet at least two times each year. Minutes of local advisory council meetings should be maintained at the local level.
Local Education Agency: See LEA.
Long-Term Learning Gains: Students’ acquisition of proficiencies that will enable them to function independently in society (work, home, and community) and to continually improve their literacy levels (as defined in this glossary). Long-term learning gains areas include but are not limited to Indicators of Program Quality of Real World Applications, Preparation for Transition, and Workforce Development.
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Maintenance and Repair: Necessary maintenance, repair, or upkeep of instructional equipment that neither adds to the permanent value of the property nor appreciably prolongs its intended life but keeps it in an efficient operating condition.
Media Advertisements: Advertisements in newspapers, radio and television programs, direct mail, trade papers, and the like.
Methods: The approaches used to do something; the manner or way in which something is carried out.
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Needs Assessment: A process that is the basis for program planning. Through a comprehensive needs assessment, providers determine the numbers of the populations in the community who need and qualify for services. A comprehensive needs assessment will indicate subgroups of the target population by program area—for example, in adult education, numbers of adults in need of beginning adult basic education, numbers of adults in need of beginning English as a Second Language programs, numbers of adults in need of adult secondary education, and so on.
In addition, a comprehensive needs assessment also indicates subgroups of the target population by other variables. These subgroups would include, for example, the numbers of undereducated adults who are on probation or parole supervision, who are unemployed, or who are recipients of public assistance programs such as food stamps or TANF.
A comprehensive needs assessment uses both quantitative and qualitative data from a variety of sources. Broad sources of quantitative data can be gathered from such sources as the U.S. Census, school district dropout data, and other public agencies. This data should be supplemented by both quantitative and qualitative data from organizations such as community-based organizations, public-housing agencies, employers, school counselors, human service caseworkers, and many others.
By analyzing data obtained from an array of sources in the community, the program is able to plan and deliver services that meet the specific needs of the target population. This approach to needs assessment is especially critical for programs that cover a wide geographic area, since local communities are often very different from each other.
Nonconsortium: Eligible grant recipients who meet one of the following:
• work together through nonfinancial agreements rather than direct funding to provide comprehensive adult education services
• provide a single adult education service (e.g., English as a Second Language) as a single organization.
Nontraditional Fields: Occupations or fields of work, including careers in computer science, technology, and other emerging high skill occupations, for which individuals from one gender comprise less than 25% of the individuals employed in each such occupation or field of work.
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Objective: What one intends to do or achieve.
Occupationally Specific Course: A course designed to prepare students for employment or additional training in a specific occupation.
Organization: The legal entity applying for a grant.
Other Institutionalized Adults: Adults who are patients or residents of a medical or special institution but who are not in correctional facilities and are not classified as “homeless adults.”
Outreach: Activities designed to do the following:
• inform populations of the availability and benefits of the program
• actively recruit these populations to participate in the program
• assist these populations to participate in the program by providing reasonable and .convenient access and support services to remove barriers to their participation
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Participatory Education: An approach to instruction that revolves around the discussion of issues drawn from learners’ real-life experiences. The central tenet is that education and knowledge have value if they help people to improve their social conditions. The following concepts are central:
• Generative words and themes: These words and themes are the basis for conversation, reading, and writing activities. Learners begin with encoding and decoding exercises and move to more complex activities.
• Collaboration and dialogue among equals: Teachers and learners face one another and discuss issues on concern in their lives.
• Problem posing: Using objects, pictures, and written texts, teachers and learners describe what they see, examine the relationships among the objects and people represented, and talk about how they feel about what they see. Ultimately, they articulate the problem illustrated and propose solutions.
Partnership: The state of being associated: affiliation, alliance, cooperation.
Performance Indicator: Measurable evidence of an accomplishment. In adult education, for example, performance indicators include student gains in basic skills; achievement of a secondary school credential; placement in a job, training, or postsecondary education; advancement in a job; and retention in the program.
Performance Measure: The specified level of performance on a specific performance indicator.
Postsecondary Education Tech Prep Student: A student who has completed a secondary education component of a tech prep program and has enrolled in the postsecondary education component of a tech prep program at an institution of higher education (IHE) described in clause (i) or (ii) of section 203(a)(1)(B).
Postsecondary Educational Institution: One of the following:
• an IHE that provides not less than a two-year program of instruction that is acceptable for credit toward a bachelor’s degree
• a tribally controlled college or university
• a nonprofit educational institution offering certificate or apprenticeship programs at the postsecondary level.
Preceptorship: A work-based learning, educational, and training environment that requires a written cooperative arrangement with business and industry where a student is provided the opportunity with or without pay to understand the functions and procedures practiced within a career cluster or career program of study.
Pre-employment Laboratory Course: A method of instruction course designed to provide training for a specific occupation or cluster of occupations. The training is provided on campus in a laboratory setting, using tools, equipment, and processes actually involved with that occupation.
Printing and Duplication Services: Quasi-external expenses for printing and duplicating services by an outside or central print shop or duplicating unit.
Priority Occupations: Occupations that have an impact on the Texas economy, require substantial training time, and offer a reasonable expectation of career opportunities and advancement.
Private Career and Technology Education: A business, trade school, or technical institution that serves either secondary or postsecondary students who have the ability to benefit from the training offered by the institution and which is approved by TEA or the Texas Cosmetology Commission.
Private School: Any educational institution supported by other than local, state, or federal tax revenues.
Process Evaluation: See Formative Evaluation.
Product Evaluation: See Summative Evaluation.
Professional Development: Activities to strengthen the knowledge, skills, and abilities of instructors, administrators, and other staff.
Program: A grant “program” authorized in State or Federal statute. A program is usually accompanied by specific language pertaining to the use of funds and the eligible population to be served.
Progress Assessment: Assessment that is conducted after a period of instruction to determine gain (from the baseline assessment) in scale scores using the standardized tests required by TEA.
Project: Usually the grant program carried out at the local level. A grant project has an organized list of activities or events to be carried out according to a timeline or schedule to accomplish identified goals and objectives.
Project Administrator: The person representing either TEA or Contractor who administers the contract or grant project.
Project Coordinator: A staff member who has both supervisory and administrative duties included in the description of both the Program Director and Instructional Coordinator.
Project Director: See Director.
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Quality Workforce Planning: A partnership established between educators and employers in a defined region to develop a skilled and educated workforce that will enhance economic development in this state and compete in a global economy. To achieve this purpose, quality workforce planning committees analyze regional job opportunities and education and training needs, identify regional priorities for career and technology education and other employment and training offerings, and develop regional plans that address those priorities.
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Recruitment:Effective outreach of populations who may be unaware of program services or who may have been reluctant to make use of them in the past, so that they enroll in programs in their community.
Requirement: A condition that must be met by the applicant in order to be eligible to be considered for funding. Requirements are either derived from the authorizing statute and applicable rules and regulations or approved by TEA as a condition for applying for a grant and receiving funds.
Retention: Student participation and progress in effective and comprehensive programs so that students benefit from programs; can achieve personal, academic, and occupational self-sufficiency; and make a successful transition.
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SAS: Standard Application System. TEA uses SAS for all grants funded by TEA to provide for uniformity and consistency in applying for grants.
School Dropout: An individual who is no longer attending any school and who has not received a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent.
Scientifically-Based Research: Research that is carried out using scientifically-based research standards, as defined in section 102 of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. 9501).
Secondary Education Tech Prep Student: A secondary education student who has enrolled in two courses in the secondary education component of a tech prep program.
Secondary School: See section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 8801) .
Section 223: A section of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act that authorizes the state agency to use not more than 12.5% of the Federal grant to carry out state leadership activities. These activities include professional development; technical assistance; technology assistance; support of literacy resource centers; monitoring and evaluation of the quality of and improvement in adult education and literacy programs; incentives; curriculum development; and other activities of statewide importance.
Section 225: A section of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (title II of the Workforce Investment Act) that authorizes the use of funds from Section 231 to pay the Federal share of the cost of developing, implementing, and improving adult education and literacy activities for incarcerated adults within the state. Section 225 funds are comprised of not more than 10% of the Section 231 Federal funds received by the state.
Section 231: A section of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (title II of the Workforce Investment Act) that authorizes the use of funds to pay the Federal share of the cost of developing, implementing, and improving adult education and literacy activities within the state. Section 231 funds are comprised of 82.5% of the Federal funds received by the state.
Shared Services Arrangement (SSA): An agreement between two or more school districts, open enrollment charter schools, or ESCs that provides services for entities involved. Such entities may desire to enter into an SSA for the performance and administration of a program in order to maximize the use of funds and services to be provided. An eligible entity must serve as fiscal agent for an SSA.
Signature Authority: Certification by the applicant that the person signing the application has been properly delegated this authority to obligate the application organization in a contractual agreement.
Single Parent: An individual who is unmarried or legally separated from a spouse and has a minor child or children for whom the individual has either custody or joint custody or is pregnant.
Software Expenditures: Expenditures for computer software specifically for use within the program.
Special Populations: Groups who meet the following:
• individuals with disabilities
• individuals from economically disadvantaged families, including foster children
• individuals preparing for nontraditional training and employment
• single parents, including single pregnant women
• displaced homemakers
• individuals with limited English proficiency.
SSA: See Shared Services Arrangement.
Stipends: Expense items paid to individuals who are not employed by the applicant agency for expenses related to participation in staff development activities. Stipends may be paid in lieu of per diem, whichever is most reasonable.
Strategy: A method, plan, scheme, or game plan for accomplishing something.
Subcontracts: Funds budgeted for all subcontracts. Each subcontractor should be listed separately under Professional and Contracted Services and a copy of the signed agreement should be attached to the application.
Summative Evaluation: The process of assessing a program after development to determine its merit and effectiveness. Summative evaluation refers to measuring achieved results, as opposed to desired results. A plan for summative evaluation should include the following:
• how the accomplishment of each performance objective will be determined
• what data sources will be used
• how the data will be analyzed.
Supervisor: See Instructional Coordinator.
Supplementary Instructional Services: A supplementary accelerated instruction in basic courses related to career and technology education in the areas of mathematics, reading, writing, science, and social studies.
Support Services: Services related to curriculum modification, equipment modification, classroom modification, supportive personnel, and instructional aids and devices.
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TEA: Texas Education Agency
Teacher: A professional employee who is required to hold a valid teacher certificate or permit to perform some type of instruction to students. Under the State Board Rules for Adult Education, a teacher must possess at least a bachelor’s degree. Teachers without a valid Texas teaching certificate must attend 12 clock-hours of in-service training in addition to the regular annual 12-hour in-service requirement of all personnel, until the person has completed either 6 clock-hours of adult education college credit courses or accumulated 2 years of education experience.
The Amendments to the Texas State Plan for Federal Adult Education Funding, approved by the State Board of Education, permit the evaluation of the qualifications of key personnel in relation to the objectives of an adult education program.
Teacher Facilitator: See Instructional Coordinator.
Teacher Supervisor: See Instructional Coordinator.
TEC: Texas Education Code
TEC 29.252 Funds: The revised TEC designates TEA as the administrative entity for adult education programs. The code authorizes the appropriation of funds for adult education and expands the eligibility for adult-education funds to include public LEAs, public nonprofit agencies, and community-based organizations.
Technique: The method, approach, or procedure for doing something.
Tech-Prep Program: A program of study or an apprenticeship program of not less than two years following secondary education instruction that does the following:
• combines at a minimum two years of secondary education (as determined under State law) with a minimum of two years of postsecondary education in a nonduplicative, sequential course of study
• integrates academic, and CTE instruction, and uses work-based and worksite learning where appropriate and available
• provides technical preparation in a career field including high-skill, high-wage, or high-demand occupations
• builds student competence in technical skills and in core academic subjects, as appropriate, through applied, contextual, and integrated instruction, in a coherent sequence of courses
• leads to technical skill proficiency, an industry-recognized credential, a certificate, or a degree in a specific career field
• leads to placement in high-skill or high-wage employment or to further education
• uses CTE programs of study to the extent practicable.
Transportation Costs: Costs of transportation for students to and from class.
Travel, Registration, and Per Diem: Travel on business of a grant recipient when the purpose of that trip can be related to the operation of the program or staff development.
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Utilities and Telephone: Costs for utilities and telephone services that are not otherwise included in rental or other charges for space.
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Vocational and Technical Education: Organized educational activities that do the following:
• offer a sequence of courses that provides individuals with the academic and technical knowledge and skills the individuals need to prepare for further education and for careers (other than careers requiring a baccalaureate, Master’s, or doctoral degree) in current or emerging employment sectors
• include competency-based applied learning that contributes to the academic knowledge, higher-order reasoning and problem-solving skills, work attitudes, general employability skills, technical skills, and occupation-specific skills, of an individual.
Volunteerism: The act of entering into or offering oneself for a service of one’s own free will, or rendering a service or taking part in a transaction while having no legal concern or interest.
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Work-Based Learning: A method of education for individuals who, through written arrangements between a school and employers, receive instruction, including required rigorous and challenging academic courses and related CTE, by alternation of study in school with a job in any occupational field. This learning shall be planned and supervised by the school and employer so that each contributes to the education and employability of the individual and may include an arrangement in which work periods and school attendance may be on alternate half days, full days, weeks, or other periods of time in fulfilling the cooperative program.
Note: Work-based learning is not a work-study program. See the definition of work-study program.
Work-Based Learning Training Plan: A written cooperative agreement between the school and the training sponsor employer for each student enrolled in CTE work-based learning. The training plan shall ensure that each student will receive both on-the-job training and the equivalent of one period daily of related instruction covering the required essential knowledge and skills for the specific occupation identified in the training plan. Such related instruction must be provided each week for the entire school year. In cases where no approved essential knowledge and skills are available, the appropriate training elements must be identified cooperatively by the school and the employer (training sponsor).
Work-Study Program: A special school program designed to provide financial assistance through part-time employment in nonprofit agencies or public entities for students who require such aid in order to commence or continue their education and training. This is not an allowable cost using Perkins Federal funds.